`using Symbolics`

# 65 Symbolics.jl

There are a few options in `Julia`

for symbolic math, for example, the `SymPy`

package which wraps a Python library. This section describes a collection of native `Julia`

packages providing many features of symbolic math.

## 65.1 About

The `Symbolics`

package bills itself as a “fast and modern Computer Algebra System (CAS) for a fast and modern programming language.” This package relies on the `SymbolicUtils`

package and is built upon by the `ModelingToolkit`

package, which we don’t describe here.

We begin by loading the `Symbolics`

package which when loaded re-exports the `SymbolicUtils`

package.

## 65.2 Symbolic variables

Symbolic math at its core involves symbolic variables, which essentially defer evaluation until requested. The creation of symbolic variables differs between the two packages discussed here.

`SymbolicUtils`

creates variables which carry `Julia`

type information (e.g. `Int`

, `Float64`

, …). This type information carries through operations involving these variables. Symbolic variables can be created with the `@syms`

macro. For example:

`@syms x y::Int f(x::Real)::Real`

`(x, y, f)`

This creates `x`

a symbolic value with symbolic type `Number`

, `y`

a symbolic variable holding integer values, and `f`

a symbolic function of a single real variable outputting a real variable.

The non-exported `symtype`

function reveals the underlying type:

```
import Symbolics.SymbolicUtils: symtype
symtype(x), symtype(y)
```

`(Number, Int64)`

For `y`

, the symbolic type being real does not imply the type of `y`

is a subtype of `Real`

:

`isa(y, Real)`

`false`

We see that the function `f`

when called with `y`

would return a value of (symbolic) type `Real`

:

`f(y) |> symtype`

`Real`

As the symbolic type of `x`

is `Number`

– which is not a subtype of `Real`

– the following will error:

`f(x)`

`LoadError: Tuple{Number} is not a subtype of Tuple{Real}.`

The `SymPy`

package also has an `@syms`

macro to create variables. Though their names agree, they do different things. Using both packages together would require qualifying many shared method names. For `SymbolicUtils`

, the `@syms`

macro uses `Julia`

types to parameterize the variables. In `SymPy`

it is possible to specify *assumptions* on the variables, but that is different and not useful for dispatch without some extra effort.

For `Symbolics`

, symbolic variables are created using a wrapper around an underlying `SymbolicUtils`

object. This wrapper, `Num`

, is a subtype of `Real`

(the underlying `SymbolicUtils`

object may have symbolic type `Real`

, but it won’t be a subtype of `Real`

.)

Symbolic values are created with the `@variables`

macro. For example:

`@variables x y::Int z[1:3]::Int f(..)::Int`

```
4-element Vector{Any}:
x
y
z[1:3]
f⋆
```

This creates

- a symbolic value
`x`

of`symtype`

`Real`

- a symbolic value
`y`

of`symtype`

`Int`

- a vector of symbolic values each of
`symtype`

`Int`

- a symbolic function
`f`

returning an object of`symtype`

`Int`

The symbolic type reflects that of the underlying object behind the `Num`

wrapper:

`typeof(x), symtype(x), typeof(Symbolics.value(x))`

`(Num, Real, SymbolicUtils.BasicSymbolic{Real})`

(The `value`

method unwraps the `Num`

wrapper.)

## 65.3 Symbolic expressions

Symbolic expressions are built up from symbolic variables through natural `Julia`

idioms. `SymbolicUtils`

privileges a few key operations: `Add`

, `Mul`

, `Pow`

, and `Div`

. For example:

```
@syms x y
typeof(x + y) # `Add`
```

`SymbolicUtils.BasicSymbolic{Number}`

`typeof(x * y) # `Mul``

`SymbolicUtils.BasicSymbolic{Number}`

Whereas, applying a function leaves a different type:

`typeof(sin(x))`

`SymbolicUtils.BasicSymbolic{Number}`

The `Term`

wrapper just represents the effect of calling a function (in this case `sin`

) on its arguments (in this case `x`

).

This happens in the background with symbolic variables in `Symbolics`

:

```
@variables x
typeof(sin(x)), typeof(Symbolics.value(sin(x)))
```

`(Num, SymbolicUtils.BasicSymbolic{Real})`

### 65.3.1 Tree structure to expressions

The `TermInterface`

package is used by `SymbolicUtils`

to explore the tree structure of an expression. The main methods are (cf. SymbolicUtils.jl):

`istree(ex)`

:`true`

if`ex`

is not a*leaf*node (like a symbol or numeric literal)`operation(ex)`

: the function being called (if`istree`

returns`true`

)`arguments(ex)`

: the arguments to the function being called`symtype(ex)`

: the inferred type of the expression

In addition, the `issym`

function, to determine if `x`

is of type `Sym`

, is useful to distinguish *leaf* nodes, as will be illustrated below.

These methods can be used to “walk” the tree:

```
@syms x y
= 1 + x^2 + y
ex operation(ex) # the outer function is `+`
```

`+ (generic function with 485 methods)`

`arguments(ex) # `+` is n-ary, in this case with 3 arguments`

```
3-element Vector{Any}:
1
y
x^2
```

```
= arguments(ex)[3] # terms have been reordered
ex1 operation(ex1) # operation for `x^2` is `^`
```

`^ (generic function with 144 methods)`

`= arguments(ex1) a, b `

```
2-element Vector{Any}:
x
2
```

`istree(ex1), istree(a)`

`(true, false)`

Here `a`

is not a “tree”, as it has no operation or arguments, it is just a variable (the `x`

variable).

The value of `symtype`

is the *inferred* type of an expression, which may not match the actual type. For example,

```
@variables x::Int
symtype(x), symtype(sin(x)), symtype(x/x), symtype(x / x^2)
```

`(Int64, Real, Int64, Int64)`

The last one, is not likely to be an integer, but that is the inferred type in this case.

##### Example

As an example, we write a function to find the free symbols in a symbolic expression comprised of `SymbolicUtils`

variables. (The `Symbolics.get_variables`

also does this task.) To find the symbols involves walking the expression tree until a leaf node is found and then adding that to our collection if it matches `issym`

.

```
import Symbolics.SymbolicUtils: issym
free_symbols(ex) = (s=Set(); free_symbols!(s, ex); s)
function free_symbols!(s, ex)
if istree(ex)
for a ∈ arguments(ex)
free_symbols!(s, a)
end
else
issym(ex) && push!(s, ex) # push new symbol onto set
end
end
```

`free_symbols! (generic function with 1 method)`

```
@syms x y z
= sin(x + 1)*cos(z)
ex free_symbols(ex)
```

```
Set{Any} with 2 elements:
z
x
```

## 65.4 Expression manipulation

### 65.4.1 Substitute

The `substitute`

command is used to replace values with other values. For example:

```
@variables x y z
= 1 + x + x^2/2 + x^3/6
ex substitute(ex, x=>1)
```

\[ \begin{equation} \frac{8}{3} \end{equation} \]

This defines a symbolic expression, then substitutes the value `1`

in for `x`

. The `Pair`

notation is useful for a *single* substitution. When there is more than one substitution, a dictionary is used:

```
= x^3 + y^3 - 2z^3
w substitute(w, Dict(x=>2, y=>3))
```

\[ \begin{equation} 35 - 2 z^{3} \end{equation} \]

The `fold`

argument can be passed `false`

to inhibit evaluation of values. Compare:

```
= 1 + sqrt(x)
ex substitute(ex, x=>2), substitute(ex, x=>2, fold=false)
```

`(2.414213562373095, 1 + sqrt(2))`

Or

```
= sin(x)
ex substitute(ex, x=>π), substitute(ex, x=>π, fold=false)
```

`(0.0, sin(π))`

For the latter, it is more efficient to directly use `Term`

, which creates the symbolic expression representing the calling of `sin(π)`

:

`Term(sin, [π]) Symbolics.`

\[ \begin{equation} \sin\left( \pi \right) \end{equation} \]

### 65.4.2 Simplify

Algebraic operations with symbolic values can involve an exponentially increasing number of terms. As such, some simplification rules are applied after an operation to reduce the complexity of the computed value.

For example, `0+x`

should simplify to `x`

, as well `1*x`

, `x^0`

, or `x^1`

should each simplify, to some natural answer.

`SymbolicUtils`

also simplifies several other expressions, including:

`-x`

becomes`(-1)*x`

`x * x`

becomes`x^2`

(and`x^n`

if more terms). Meaning this expression is represented as a power, not a product`x + x`

becomes`2*x`

(and`n*x`

if more terms). Similarly, this represented as a product, not a sum.`p/q * x`

becomes`(p*x)/q)`

, similarly`p/q * x/y`

becomes`(p*x)/(q*y)`

. (Division wraps multiplication.)

In `SymbolicUtils`

, this *rewriting* is accomplished by means of *rewrite rules*. The package makes it easy to apply user-written rewrite rules.

### 65.4.3 Rewriting

Many algebraic simplifications are done by the `simplify`

command. For example, the basic trigonometric identities are applied:

```
@variables x
= sin(x)^2 + cos(x)^2
ex simplify(ex) ex,
```

`(sin(x)^2 + cos(x)^2, 1)`

The `simplify`

function applies a series of rewriting rule until the expression stabilizes. The rewrite rules can be user generated, if desired. For example, the Pythagorean identity of trigonometry, just used, can be implemented with this rule:

```
= @acrule(sin(~x)^2 + cos(~x)^2 => one(~x))
r |> Symbolics.value |> r |> Num ex
```

\[ \begin{equation} 1 \end{equation} \]

The rewrite rule, `r`

, is defined by the `@acrule`

macro. The `a`

is for associative, the `c`

for commutative, assumptions made by the macro. (The `c`

means `cos(x)^2 + sin(x)^2`

will also simplify.) Rewrite rules are called on the underlying `SymbolicUtils`

expression, so we first unwrap, then after re-wrap.

The above expression for `r`

is fairly easy to appreciate. The value `~x`

matches the same variable or expression. So the above rule will also simplify more complicated expressions:

```
@variables y z
= substitute(ex, x => sin(x + y + z))
ex1 |> Symbolics.value |> r |> Num ex1
```

\[ \begin{equation} 1 \end{equation} \]

Rewrite rules when applied return the rewritten expression, if there is a match, or `nothing`

.

Rules involving two values are also easily created. This one, again, comes from the set of simplifications defined for trigonometry and exponential simplifications:

```
= @rule(exp(~x)^(~y) => exp(~x * ~y)) # (e^x)^y -> e^(x*y)
r = exp(-x+z)^y
ex |> Symbolics.value |> r |> Num ex, ex
```

`(exp(-x + z)^y, exp((-x + z)*y))`

This rule is not commutative or associative, as `x^y`

is not the same as `y^x`

and `(x^y)^z`

is not `x^(y^z)`

in general.

The application of rules can be filtered through qualifying predicates. This artificial example uses `iseven`

which returns `true`

for even numbers. Here we subtract `1`

when a number is not even, and otherwise leave the number alone. We do this with two rules:

```
= @rule ~x::iseven => ~x
reven = @rule ~x::(!iseven) => ~x - 1
rodd = SymbolicUtils.Chain([rodd, reven])
r r(2), r(3)
```

`(2, 2)`

The `Chain`

function conveniently allows the sequential application of rewrite rules.

The notation `~x`

is called a “slot variable” in the documentation for `SymbolicUtils`

. It matches a single expression. To match more than one expression, a “segment variable”, denoted with two `~`

s is used.

### 65.4.4 Creating functions

By utilizing the tree-like nature of a symbolic expression, a `Julia`

expression can be built from a symbolic expression easily enough. The `Symbolics.toexpr`

function does this:

```
= exp(-x + z)^y
ex toexpr(ex) Symbolics.
```

`:((^)((exp)((+)((*)(-1, x), z)), y))`

This output shows an internal representation of the steps for computing the value `ex`

given different inputs. (The number `(-1)`

multiplies `x`

, this is added to `z`

and the result passed to `exp`

. That values is then used as the base for `^`

with exponent `y`

.)

Such `Julia`

expressions are one step away from building `Julia`

functions for evaluating symbolic expressions fast (though with some technical details about “world age” to be reckoned with). The `build_function`

function with the argument `expression=Val(false)`

will compile a `Julia`

function:

```
= build_function(ex, x, y, z; expression=Val(false))
h h(1, 2, 3)
```

`54.59815003314424`

The above is *similar* to substitution:

`substitute(ex, Dict(x=>1, y=>2, z=>3))`

\[ \begin{equation} 54.598 \end{equation} \]

However, `build_function`

will be **significantly** more performant, which when many function calls are used – such as with plotting – is a big advantage.

The documentation colorfully says “`build_function`

is kind of like if `lambdify`

(from `SymPy`

) ate its spinach.”

The above, through passing \(3\) variables after the expression, creates a function of \(3\) variables. Functions of a vector of inputs can also be created, just by expressing the variables in that manner:

```
= build_function(ex, [x, y, z]; expression=Val(false))
h1 h1([1, 2, 3]) # not h1(1,2,3)
```

`54.59815003314424`

##### Example

As an example, here we use the `Roots`

package to find a zero of a function defined symbolically:

```
import Roots
@variables x
= x^5 - x - 1
ex = build_function(ex, x; expression=Val(false))
λ find_zero(λ, (1, 2)) Roots.
```

`1.1673039782614187`

### 65.4.5 Plotting

Using `Plots`

, the plotting of symbolic expressions is similar to the plotting of a function, as there is a plot recipe that converts the expression into a function via `build_function`

.

For example,

```
using Plots
@variables x
plot(x^x^x, 0, 2)
```

A parametric plot is easily defined:

`plot(sin(x), cos(x), 0, pi/4)`

Expressions to be plotted can represent multivariate functions.

```
@variables x y
= 3*(1-x)^2*exp(-x^2 - (y+1)^2) - 10(x/5-x^3-y^5)*exp(-x^2-y^2) - 1/3*exp(-(x+1)^2-y^2)
ex = ys = range(-5, 5, length=100)
xs surface(xs, ys, ex)
```

The ordering of the variables is determined by `Symbolics.get_variables`

:

`get_variables(ex) Symbolics.`

```
2-element Vector{Any}:
x
y
```

### 65.4.6 Polynomial manipulations

There are some facilities for manipulating polynomial expressions in `Symbolics`

. A polynomial, mathematically, is an expression involving one or more symbols with coefficients from a collection that has, at a minimum, addition and multiplication defined. The basic building blocks of polynomials are *monomials*, which are comprised of products of powers of the symbols. Mathematically, monomials are often allowed to have a multiplying coefficient and may be just a coefficient (if each symbol is taken to the power \(0\)), but here we consider just expressions of the type \(x_1^{a_1} \cdot x_2^{a_2} \cdots \cdot x_k^{a_k}\) with the \(a_i > 0\) as monomials.

With this understanding, then an expression can be broken up into monomials with a possible coefficient (possibly just \(1\)) *and* terms which are not monomials (such as a constant or a more complicated function of the symbols). This is what is returned by the `polynomial_coeffs`

function.

For example

```
@variables a b c x
= polynomial_coeffs(a*x^2 + b*x + c, (x,)) d, r
```

`(Dict{Any, Any}(x^2 => a, x => b, 1 => c), 0)`

The first term output is a dictionary with keys which are the monomials and with values which are the coefficients. The second term, the residual, is all the remaining parts of the expression, in this case just \(0\).

The expression can then be reconstructed through

`+ sum(v*k for (k,v) ∈ d) r `

\[ \begin{equation} c + b x + x^{2} a \end{equation} \]

The above has `a,b,c`

as parameters and `x`

as the symbol. This separation is designated by passing the desired polynomial symbols to `polynomial_coeff`

as an iterable. (Above as a \(1\)-element tuple.)

More complicated polynomials can be similarly decomposed:

```
@variables a b c x y z
= a*x^2*y*z + b*x*y^2*z + c*x*y*z^2
ex = polynomial_coeffs(ex, (x, y, z)) d, r
```

`(Dict{Any, Any}((x^2)*y*z => a, x*y*(z^2) => c, x*(y^2)*z => b), 0)`

The (sparse) decomposition of the polynomial is returned through `d`

. The same pattern as above can be used to reconstruct the expression. To extract the coefficient for a monomial term, indexing can be used. Of note, is an expression like `x^2*y*z`

could *possibly* not equal the algebraically equal `x*y*z*x`

, as they are only equal after some simplification, but the keys are in a canonical form, so this is not a concern:

`*y*z*x], d[z*y*x^2] d[x`

`(a, a)`

The residual term will capture any non-polynomial terms:

```
= sin(x) - x + x^3/6
ex = polynomial_coeffs(ex, (x,))
d, r r
```

\[ \begin{equation} \sin\left( x \right) \end{equation} \]

To find the degree of a monomial expression, the `degree`

function is available, though not exported. Here it is applied to each monomial in `d`

:

```
import Symbolics: degree
degree(k) for (k,v) ∈ d] [
```

```
2-element Vector{Int64}:
1
3
```

The `degree`

function will also identify the degree of more complicated terms:

`degree(1 + x + x^2)`

`2`

Mathematically the degree of the \(0\) polynomial may be \(-1\) or undefined, but here it is \(0\):

`degree(0), degree(1), degree(x), degree(x^a)`

`(0, 0, 1, a)`

The coefficients are returned as *values* of a dictionary, and dictionaries are unsorted.

```
@variables x a0 as[1:10]
= a0 + sum(as[i]*x^i for i ∈ eachindex(collect(as)))
p = polynomial_coeffs(p, (x,))
d, r d
```

```
Dict{Any, Any} with 11 entries:
x^5 => as[5]
x^7 => as[7]
x^8 => as[8]
1 => a0
x^4 => as[4]
x^6 => as[6]
x^2 => as[2]
x^10 => as[10]
x^9 => as[9]
x^3 => as[3]
x => as[1]
```

To have a natural map between polynomials of a single symbol in the standard basis and a vector, we could use a pattern like this to sort the values:

`vcat(r, [d[k] for k ∈ sort(collect(keys(d)), by=degree)])`

```
12-element Vector{Any}:
0
a0
as[1]
as[2]
as[3]
as[4]
as[5]
as[6]
as[7]
as[8]
as[9]
as[10]
```

As an example usage, we write a function that can determine if an expression is a polynomial expression over some specified variables.

```
function is_poly(expr, vars)
all(Symbolics.SymbolicUtils.issym ∘ Symbolics.value, vars) || error("vars must be an iterable of symbols")
= polynomial_coeffs(expr, vars)
p,r length(intersect(Symbolics.get_variables(r), vars)) == 0
end
is_poly(p, (x,))
```

`true`

Rational expressions can be decomposed into a numerator and denominator using the following idiom, which assumes the outer operation is division (a binary operation):

```
@variables x
= (1 + x + x^2) / (1 + x + x^2 + x^3)
ex function nd(ex)
= Symbolics.value(ex)
ex1 operation(ex1) == /) || return (ex, one(ex))
(Num.(arguments(ex1))
end
nd(ex)
```

\[ \begin{equation} \left[ \begin{array}{c} 1 + x + x^{2} \\ 1 + x + x^{2} + x^{3} \\ \end{array} \right] \end{equation} \]

With this, the study of asymptotic behaviour of a univariate rational expression would involve an investigation like the following:

```
= degree.(nd(ex))
m,n > n ? "limit is infinite" : m < n ? "limit is 0" : "limit is a constant" m
```

`"limit is 0"`

### 65.4.7 Vectors and matrices

Symbolic vectors and matrices can be created with a specified size:

`@variables v[1:3] M[1:2, 1:3] N[1:3, 1:3]`

```
3-element Vector{Symbolics.Arr{Num}}:
v[1:3]
M[1:2,1:3]
N[1:3,1:3]
```

Computations, like finding the determinant below, are lazy unless the values are `collect`

ed:

```
using LinearAlgebra
det(N)
```

\[ \begin{equation} _{det}\left( N, true \right) \end{equation} \]

`det(collect(N))`

\[ \begin{equation} N_{1}ˏ_1 \left( N_{2}ˏ_2 N_{3}ˏ_3 - N_{2}ˏ_3 N_{3}ˏ_2 \right) - N_{1}ˏ_2 \left( N_{2}ˏ_1 N_{3}ˏ_3 - N_{2}ˏ_3 N_{3}ˏ_1 \right) + N_{1}ˏ_3 \left( N_{2}ˏ_1 N_{3}ˏ_2 - N_{2}ˏ_2 N_{3}ˏ_1 \right) \end{equation} \]

Similarly, with `norm`

:

`norm(v)`

`sqrt(Symbolics._mapreduce(#391, +, v, Colon(), (:init => false,)))`

and

`norm(collect(v))`

\[ \begin{equation} \sqrt{\left|v_1\right|^{2} + \left|v_3\right|^{2} + \left|v_2\right|^{2}} \end{equation} \]

Matrix multiplication is also deferred, but the size compatibility of the matrices and vectors is considered immediately:

`*N, N*N, M*v M`

`((M*N)[Base.OneTo(2),Base.OneTo(3)], (N*N)[Base.OneTo(3),Base.OneTo(3)], (M*v)[Base.OneTo(2)])`

This errors, as the matrix dimensions are not compatible for multiplication:

`*M N`

`LoadError: DimensionMismatch: expected axes(M, 1) = 1:3`

Similarly, linear solutions can be symbolically specified:

```
@variables R[1:2, 1:2] b[1:2]
\ b R
```

\[ \begin{equation} \mathrm{solve}\left( R, b \right) \end{equation} \]

`collect(R \ b)`

\[ \begin{equation} \left[ \begin{array}{c} solve(R, b)_1 \\ solve(R, b)_2 \\ \end{array} \right] \end{equation} \]

### 65.4.8 Algebraically solving equations

The `~`

operator creates a symbolic equation. For example

```
@variables x y
^5 - x ~ 1 x
```

\[ \begin{equation} - x + x^{5} = 1 \end{equation} \]

or

`= [5x + 2y, 6x + 3y] .~ [1, 2] eqs `

\[ \begin{align} 5 x + 2 y =& 1 \\ 6 x + 3 y =& 2 \end{align} \]

The `Symbolics.solve_for`

function can solve *linear* equations. For example,

`solve_for(eqs, [x, y]) Symbolics.`

```
2-element Vector{Float64}:
-0.3333333333333333
1.3333333333333333
```

The coefficients can be symbolic. Two examples could be:

```
@variables m b x y
= y ~ m*x + b
eq solve_for(eq, x) Symbolics.
```

\[ \begin{equation} \frac{ - b + y}{m} \end{equation} \]

```
@variables a11 a12 a22 x y b1 b2
= [a11 a12; 0 a22], [x; y], [b1, b2]
R,X,b = R*X .~ b eqs
```

\[ \begin{align} a11 x + a12 y =& b1 \\ a22 y =& b2 \end{align} \]

`solve_for(eqs, [x,y]) Symbolics.`

```
2-element Vector{SymbolicUtils.BasicSymbolic{Real}}:
(-b1 + (a12*b2) / a22) / (-a11)
b2 / a22
```

### 65.4.9 Limits

As of writing, there is no extra functionality provided by `Symbolics`

for computing limits.

### 65.4.10 Derivatives

`Symbolics`

provides the `derivative`

function to compute the derivative of a function with respect to a variable:

```
@variables a b c x
= a*x^2 + b*x + c
y = Symbolics.derivative(y, x) yp
```

\[ \begin{equation} b + 2 a x \end{equation} \]

Or to find a critical point:

`solve_for(yp ~ 0, x) # linear equation to solve Symbolics.`

\[ \begin{equation} \frac{b}{ - 2 a} \end{equation} \]

The derivative computation can also be broken up into an expression indicating the derivative and then a function to apply the derivative rules:

```
= Differential(x)
D D(y)
```

\[ \begin{equation} \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x} \left( c + b x + x^{2} a \right) \end{equation} \]

and then

`expand_derivatives(D(y))`

\[ \begin{equation} b + 2 a x \end{equation} \]

Using `Differential`

, differential equations can be specified. An example was given in ODEs, using `ModelingToolkit`

.

Higher order derivatives can be done through composition:

`D(D(y)) |> expand_derivatives`

\[ \begin{equation} 2 a \end{equation} \]

Differentials can also be multiplied to create operators for taking higher-order derivatives:

```
@variables x y
= (x - y^2)/(x^2 + y^2)
ex = Differential(x), Differential(y)
Dx, Dy = Dx*Dx, Dx*Dy, Dy*Dy
Dxx, Dxy, Dyy Dxx(ex) Dxy(ex); Dxy(ex) Dyy(ex)] .|> expand_derivatives [
```

\[ \begin{equation} \left[ \begin{array}{cc} \frac{ - 2 \left( x - y^{2} \right)}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 x \frac{1}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 x \left( \frac{1}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 4 x \left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right) \frac{x - y^{2}}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{4}} \right) & - 2 x \frac{ - 2 y}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 \left( \frac{1}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 4 x \left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right) \frac{x - y^{2}}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{4}} \right) y \\ - 2 x \frac{ - 2 y}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 \left( \frac{1}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 4 x \left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right) \frac{x - y^{2}}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{4}} \right) y & \frac{ - 2 \left( x - y^{2} \right)}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} + \frac{-2}{x^{2} + y^{2}} - 2 y \frac{ - 2 y}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 \left( \frac{ - 2 y}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 4 \left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right) y \frac{x - y^{2}}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{4}} \right) y \\ \end{array} \right] \end{equation} \]

In addition to `Symbolics.derivative`

there are also the helper functions, such as `hessian`

which performs the above

`hessian(ex, [x,y]) Symbolics.`

\[ \begin{equation} \left[ \begin{array}{cc} \frac{ - 2 \left( x - y^{2} \right)}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 x \frac{1}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 x \left( \frac{1}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 4 x \left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right) \frac{x - y^{2}}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{4}} \right) & - 2 y \frac{1}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 x \left( \frac{ - 2 y}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 4 \left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right) y \frac{x - y^{2}}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{4}} \right) \\ - 2 y \frac{1}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 x \left( \frac{ - 2 y}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 4 \left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right) y \frac{x - y^{2}}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{4}} \right) & \frac{ - 2 \left( x - y^{2} \right)}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} + \frac{-2}{x^{2} + y^{2}} - 2 y \frac{ - 2 y}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 2 \left( \frac{ - 2 y}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{2}} - 4 \left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right) y \frac{x - y^{2}}{\left( x^{2} + y^{2} \right)^{4}} \right) y \\ \end{array} \right] \end{equation} \]

The `gradient`

function is also defined

```
@variables x y z
= x^2 - 2x*y + z*y
ex gradient(ex, [x, y, z]) Symbolics.
```

\[ \begin{equation} \left[ \begin{array}{c} 2 x - 2 y \\ - 2 x + z \\ y \\ \end{array} \right] \end{equation} \]

The `jacobian`

function takes an array of expressions:

```
@variables x y
= [ x^2 - y^2, 2x*y]
eqs jacobian(eqs, [x,y]) Symbolics.
```

\[ \begin{equation} \left[ \begin{array}{cc} 2 x & - 2 y \\ 2 y & 2 x \\ \end{array} \right] \end{equation} \]

### 65.4.11 Integration

The use of `SymbolicNumericIntegration`

below is currently broken.

The `SymbolicNumericIntegration`

package provides a means to integrate *univariate* expressions through its `integrate`

function.

Symbolic integration can be approached in different ways. SymPy implements part of the Risch algorithm in addition to other algorithms. Rules-based algorithms could also be implemented.

For a trivial example, here is a rule that could be used to integrate a single integral

```
@syms x ∫(x)
is_var(x) = (xs = Symbolics.get_variables(x); length(xs) == 1 && xs[1] === x)
= @rule ∫(~x::is_var) => x^2/2
r
r(∫(x))
```

\[ \begin{equation} \frac{1}{2} x^{2} \end{equation} \]

The `SymbolicNumericIntegration`

package includes many more predicates for doing rules-based integration, but it primarily approaches the task in a different manner.

If \(f(x)\) is to be integrated, a set of *candidate* answers is generated. The following is **proposed** as an answer: \(\sum q_i \Theta_i(x)\). Differentiating the proposed answer leads to a *linear system of equations* that can be solved.

The example in the paper describing the method is with \(f(x) = x \sin(x)\) and the candidate thetas are \({x, \sin(x), \cos(x), x\sin(x), x\cos(x)}\) so that the proposed answer is:

\[ \int f(x) dx = q_1 x + q_2 \sin(x) + q_3 \cos(x) + q_4 x \sin(x) + q_5 x \cos(x) \]

We differentiate the right hand side:

```
@variables q[1:5] x
= dot(collect(q), (x, sin(x), cos(x), x*sin(x), x*cos(x)))
ΣqᵢΘᵢ simplify(Symbolics.derivative(ΣqᵢΘᵢ, x))
```

\[ \begin{equation} q_1 + \left( q_2 + q_5 \right) \cos\left( x \right) - q_3 \sin\left( x \right) + q_4 \sin\left( x \right) + q_4 x \cos\left( x \right) - q_5 x \sin\left( x \right) \end{equation} \]

This must match \(x\sin(x)\) so we have by equating coefficients of the respective terms:

\[ q_2 + q_5 = 0, \quad q_4 = 0, \quad q_1 = 0, \quad q_3 = 0, \quad q_5 = -1 \]

That is \(q_2=1\), \(q_5=-1\), and the other coefficients are \(0\), giving an answer computed with:

```
= Dict(q[i] => v for (i,v) ∈ enumerate((0,1,0,0,-1)))
d substitute(ΣqᵢΘᵢ, d)
```

\[ \begin{equation} \sin\left( x \right) - x \cos\left( x \right) \end{equation} \]

The package provides an algorithm for the creation of candidates and the means to solve when possible. The `integrate`

function is the main entry point. It returns three values: `solved`

, `unsolved`

, and `err`

. The `unsolved`

is the part of the integrand which can not be solved through this package. It is `0`

for a given problem when `integrate`

is successful in identifying an antiderivative, in which case `solved`

is the answer. The value of `err`

is a bound on the numerical error introduced by the algorithm.

The following isn’t working with `SymbolicNumericIntegration`

version `v"1.4.0"`

. For now, the cells are not evaluated.

To see, we have:

```
using SymbolicNumericIntegration
@variables x
integrate(x * sin(x))
```

The second term is `0`

, as this integrand has an identified antiderivative.

`integrate(exp(x^2) + sin(x))`

This returns `exp(x^2)`

for the unsolved part, as this function has no simple antiderivative.

Powers of trig functions have antiderivatives, as can be deduced using integration by parts. When the fifth power is used, there is a numeric aspect to the algorithm that is seen:

`= integrate(sin(x)^5) u,v,w `

The derivative of `u`

matches up to some numeric tolerance:

`derivative(u, x) - sin(x)^5 Symbolics.`

The integration of rational functions (ratios of polynomials) can be done algorithmically, provided the underlying factorizations can be identified. The `SymbolicNumericIntegration`

package has a function `factor_rational`

that can identify factorizations.

```
import SymbolicNumericIntegration: factor_rational
@variables x
= (1 + x + x^2)/ (x^2 -2x + 1)
u = factor_rational(u) v
```

The summands in `v`

are each integrable. We can see that `v`

is a reexpression through

`simplify(u - v)`

The algorithm is numeric, not symbolic. This can be seen in these two factorizations:

```
= 1 / expand((x^2-1)*(x-2)^2)
u = factor_rational(u) v
```

or

```
= 1 / expand((x^2+1)*(x-2)^2)
u = factor_rational(u) v
```

As such, the integrals have numeric differences from their mathematical counterparts:

These last commands are note being executed, as there are errors.

`= integrate(u) # not a,b,c `

We can see a bit of how much through the following, which needs a tolerance set to identify the rational numbers of the mathematical factorization correctly:

`= [first(arguments(term)) for term ∈ arguments(a)] # pick off coefficients cs `

`rationalize.(cs[2:end]; tol=1e-8)`